Dairy Powder in Bakery Products



By John Vandenbroucke

Nobody knows when people started to make bread but we do know that Egyptians where making bread already around 7000 BC.

Since the early beginning people have tried to improve their bread and they did that by incorporating natural bread improvers, sugar, butter, nuts, honey and milk.

Each of those natural ingredients has its own functionality:

  • Sugar and honey will make the bread soft, help the yeast development, give a nice color to the crust and will increase the nutritional value of the bread.
  • Butter will make the dough mixing easier, will soften the bread crumb, will improve shelf life, give a good bite (mouthfeel) and a nice aroma to the bread.
  • Milk will add nutritional value to the bread, will help to improve the crumb structure of the bread, enhance the flavor and the aroma and will make the crust thin and the lactose in the milk will give a nice color to the crust.

The use of milk has constantly changed over time: from liquid milk, to spray dried milk powder (WMP and SMP) and the latest trend is fat filled powder

Fat filled milk powder will be the subject of this article. What is fat filled milk powder? Fat filled milk powder is a powder obtained by spray drying a vegetable oil on a dairy carrier. To better understand the composition of a fat filled powder we have to look first at the composition of milk in particular spray dried milk powder; Whole Milk Powder (WMP) is the powder obtained by spray drying the cows milk without adding any additive or without altering the composition of the liquid milk before spray drying. A spray dried milk powder contains around 24% milk protein, 27% milk fat, and 45% lactose. No doubt a premium ingredient with an excellent nutritional value but it is very expensive and it has a low functionality in the bread baking.

The functionality of spray dried whole milk in bread making is low because milk is tailor made with the purpose to feed the calf. The composition of whole milk powder and skimmed milk powder does not meet at all the requirements of the baker. Using full cream milk or skimmed milk powder is in fact “over-engineering”, an inefficient use of an expensive premium ingredient.

It is possible to separate each component of the milk: protein, lactose and the fat (fat separation is done that since more than 1000 th of years by making butter).

To make an economical and functional use of those ingredients we will need to recombine the milk powder components but before we do that we have to understand how each of the milk components can be used to produce a better bread.

What is the role of milk protein in the bread baking?
To find out we will have to look at the wheat flour composition and on how wheat flour forms the network that can hold the carbodioxide during the fermentation.

Enzymes against milk protein

Bread can only be made with wheat flour because the gluten in wheat flour are the only gluten that can form a network able hold the carbodioxide during fermentation. To make a good bread the wheat flour should have minimum 13% protein and the flour should have a good enzyme activity

With such a flour the yeast development will be optimal and the dough will have good elasticity. This will prevent that air cells will burst during the oven spring.

If the wheat flour has been milled from sprouted wheat than it will be difficult to make a nice bread (even if the protein is high!) because such a wheat flour has a low enzyme activity. Because of a low enzyme activity the gluten will not develop properly.

Wheat flour contains 2 important enzymes: Diastase and Protease. It is the protease in wheat flour that strengthens the gluten and improves the ability to contain the gas during fermentation. An other enzyme that has a direct influence on strengthening the gluten is xylanase. This enzyme is normally contained in “bread improvers (together with mineral yeast food and eventually softeners)”.

To strengthen the gluten the baker will add or wheat protein in the form of dry gluten or he can add a bread improver. The milk protein from SMP or from whole milk powder will not be of any influence on the structure of the gluten and a milk protein can also not improve the structure of the crumb.

Only xylanase and protease will be able to form a strong gluten network. Those 2 enzymes are present in an active gluten powder and you can find them also in good bread improvers.

In picture 1 you have a bread made with 4% SMP and a low quality bread improver and on the right a similar loaf in which the SMP has been replaced by a fat filled powder with 5% Milk Protein and 45% vegetable fat and good bread improver was used (containing xylanase and protease). The crumb structure is much better.

On the picture 1 you see that the crumb structure is more open because of a not so good wheat flour. Although an expensive skimmed milk powder was used it could clearly not improve the crumb structure while on the right a very small amount of enzymes could improve the gluten structure resulting in a much better loaf.

Replacing skimmed milk powder by a fat filled powder in combination with a good bread improver had also other improvements clearly visible on the bread at the right: the crust was much thinner, the bite (mouthfeel) was improved a lot, the bread had a very nice milky aroma and milk taste and the shelf life was longer.

All this could be obtained at a significant cost saving for the bakery industry.

While most the bakery industries are working with a good quality of wheat flour (high in protein and with a high enzyme activity) and with a good bread improver, they do not need to improve the gluten structure. It will be enough in most of the applications to replace simply the SMP or WMP by a good quality fat filled milk powder. I have used the example of a weak gluten development only to show that milk protein, even at a high dosage, will not contribute in producing a better bread.

Fat source in fat filled powder

A fat filled powder should contain a percentage of fat that is at least equal to that of WMP = 27%. But most of the fat filled milk powders are containing 33% fat or even more. The fat is mostly RBD (Refined, Bleached and Deodorized) palm oil. The oil used in the production of fat filled powders does not contain partially hydrogenated fat and hence is cholesterol free.

Production method

The milk solids (protein and lactose) are reconstituted, palm oil is added, this mixture is than thoroughly blended, pasteurized, homogenized and than spray dried. The result is a modified milk powder with a high functionality at a much lower cost than a skimmed milk - or whole milk powder.

The composition of a fat filled milk powder is really tailor-made to meet the requirements of the bakery industries.

Shelf life
A fat filled powder has a shelf life of min 1 year if stored as recommended by the producer.

John Vandenbroucke International Food Hongkong

Artikel Lainnya

  • Feb 20, 2019

    Peluang dan Tantangan Manis Bisnis Kefir

    Di Indonesia, produk kefir masih perlu diedukasi ke masyarakat luas bahwa ada produk fermentasi susu selain yogurt yang memiliki manfaat bagi kesehatan. Produk kefir sangat berpotensi untuk dikembangkan di Indonesia seiring dengan semakin meningkatnya kesadaran mengkonsumsi produk fermentasi susu yang berkualitas dan menyehatkan. Terdapat beberapa tantangan dalam produksi kefir dan menjaga konsistensi kualitasnya. Secara ideal, kefir yang berkualitas dihasilkan dengan menggunakan biji kefir dan aplikasi teknik produksi secara tradisional serta menghindari penggunaan sarana berbahan metal. Namun aplikasi ini mengalami kesulitan dalam menjaga konsistensi produk akhir. Sejalan dengan kemajuan teknologi pangan, hal ini dapat diatasi dengan menggunakan starter berupa mother-culture yang bisa menghasilkan kefir yang mirip dengan kefir yang dihasilkan secara tradisional. Produk kefir mengandung gas CO2 sehingga semakin lama proses fermentasi dilakukan maka kandungan gas CO2 semakin tinggi. Secara bertahap gas CO2 yang terbentuk harus dikeluarkan. Perlu ada desain kemasan khusus yang memudahkan keluarnya gas yang terbentuk selama dalam kemasan. Bila sistem kemasnya rapat, maka gas CO2 akan menyebabkan kembung kemasan dan bisa meledak bila kandungan gas terlalu tinggi. ...

  • Feb 19, 2019

    Mengenal Ingridien untuk Membuat Gelato

    Gelato merupakan jenis es krim yang berasal dari Italia. Perbedaan gelato dengan es krim pada umumnya terutama terletak pada komposisi kandungan lemaknya. Produk gelato memiliki kandungan lemak yang lebih sedikit daripada es krim. Berbeda dengan es krim, komponen utama gelato adalah susu dan krim, tanpa penambahan kuning telur seperti pada formulasi es krim. Jenis susu yang paling baik untuk membuat gelato adalah whole milk sebanyak 3,5%, namun gelato juga dibuat menggunakan susu rendah lemak dengan jumlah sebanyak 1-2% atau pun susu tanpa lemak (skim). Selain mempertahankan sifat krimi dan tekstur yang lembut, namun susu juga berfungsi meningkatkan resistensi produk terhadap leleh. Di samping itu, susu tidak hanya menambah kandungan protein dalam produk, namun juga merupakan sumber kalsium. ...

  • Feb 18, 2019

    Ragam Olahan Kacang Ijo

    Kacang hijau atau yang biasa disebut kacang ijo merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman pangan yang banyak dikonsumsi masyarakat Indonesia. Sebagai bahan pangan, kacang ijo merupakan salah satu sumber protein nabati dengan kandungan protein sekitar 22,2%. Selain itu kacang ijo juga kaya akan zat gizi lain yang bermanfaat bagi tubuh seperti kalsium, fosfor, zat besi, vitamin A, serta vitamin B1. Meskipun bukan sebagai makanan pokok, masyarakat seringkali mengolah kacang ijo menjadi masakan siap santap. Hampir semua kalangan dapat menikmati masakan berbasis kacang ijo karena ketersediaan dan harga yang cukup terjangkau. ...

  • Feb 15, 2019

    Dangke: Produk Keju dengan Kearifan Lokal

    Dangke merupakan produk keju tradisional dari susu kerbau khas Sulawesi Selatan dan telah diproduksi sejak tahun 1905. Dangke banyak diproduksi di daerah Enrekang, Curio, Baraka, Anggeraja dan Alla. Menurut cerita, nama Dangke berasal dari bahasa Belanda, “dank u well” yang berarti terimaksih banyak. Saat itu seorang peternak kerbau memberikan olahan fermentasi susu kepada orang Belanda yang sedang melintas dan orang Belanda tersebut mengucapkan “dank je” yaitu ucapan singkat dari “dank u well”. Sejak saat itulah susu fermentasi kerbau ini disebut dangke. Dangke memiliki tekstur yang elastis, berwarna putih, dan memiliki rasa mirip dengan keju pada umumnya. ...

  • Feb 14, 2019

    Costing Menu Summer Fresh

    Summer Fresh merupakan smoothies buah mangga, pisang, dan peach yang dihaluskan dengan tambahan susu dan yogurt. Teksturnya agak kental mengandung butiran halus es buah beku yang dingin, sangat pas disajikan saat siang atau udara panas. Kaya akan vitamin C, kalium, kalsium, dan zat gizi lainnya yang bermanfaat bagi kesehatan. Penambahan yogurt selain memberi rasa asam segar juga memberikan manfaat bagi kesehatan percernaan karena mengandung probiotik. Bahan smothies ini antara lain mangga, peach, pisang, susu segar, dan yogurt. Kandungan gizi per porsinya antara lain; energi 251 kkal, protein 7,6 gram, lemak 8,2 gram, dan karbohidrat 39,8 gram. Berikut adalah costing dari Summer Fresh: ...